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Dr. Rob Marshall Book
The Budgerigar

Written by renowned avian vet
Dr. Rob Marshall, The Budgerigar
contains information essential for
keeping budgerigars as pet birds, in
aviaries, and especially, in the
development of exhibition
bloodlines. Every pertinent topic is
covered, including those regarding
behavior, environment, nutrition,
health, and breeding.
"There is a lot of literature available about the Budgerigars. This book is completely different. It is the first book that looks at this little bird as a creature interacting with its harsh environment. The biological insight into the life of budgerigars will give the reader a new understanding into all aspects of this remarkable bird, its basic requirements for living and the wonder of its breeding capabilities.
Established breeders will find here completely new insights and a lot of food for thinking about the management of a stud. Rob Marshall has managed to guide the reader along all stages of a budgerigar’s life and explains the key points in an easy to understand way. This book, containing plenty of practical information, is also of great help for the dedicated keeper of a pair or a small flock of Budgerigars. "

Gerd Bleicher
President WBO Berlin (Germany).

The Budgerigar" by Dr. Rob Marshall is an extensive, detailed book covering everything from origin, breeding, nutrition, genetics, and disease. It is a valuable reference for the serious breeder and exhibitor. We have been breeding and showing Budgerigars for 30 years and found the chapters on breeding, nutrition and disease most helpful.”
Gary & Kathy Hicken-UT

414 pages, Beautifully Illustrated, Hard Bound Cover. ISBN: 978 0646 5065 86

International Orders ship via Priority Mail Only.

Dr. Rob Marshall
a World Leader in
Avian Health

The Budgerigar - This hard bound publication, by Dr Rob Marshall, provides extensive genetic details on primary and combination mutations bred worldwide. This title presents 414 pages over 31 Chapters including 2000 photographs & illustrations. Definitive information on all aspects of keeping and exhibiting. While Supplies Last! Out of Print.
Please Select:

Chapter One
Origins of Melopsittacus undulatus6
Origins of birds6
Origin of Melopsittacus undulatus "Budgerigar"10
Classification of Melopsittacus undulatus 11
Chapter Two
Aboriginality & Melopsittacus undulatus 14
Chapter Three
Ethology of Melopsittacus undulatus20
Grassland and Desert Environments 22
Seasonal Breeding Behaviour23
Environmental Water Supply 26
Geology & Soil Types26
Soil Types & Flora 27
Flora 28
Breeding Grounds, Soil Types & Flora 29
Calcium Supply29
Breeding Grounds & Nesting Hollows 30
Ethology & Exhibition Budgerigars 31
Chapter Four
Communication Behaviour of Melopsittacus undulatus32
Visual Communication 34
Visual Communication & Flock Behaviour36
Vocal Communication 37
Hearing Ability37
Memory-based Behaviour 38
Flock Behaviour 40
Migratory Behaviour 41
Chapter Five
Breeding Behaviour of Melopsittacus undulatus 42
Breeding Opportunities and Rain Patterns46
Breeding Stimulation and Climatic Patterns47
Moult & Breeding 48
Breeding Condition 50
Courtship Behaviour & Mate Selection51
Warbling Behaviour 51
Egg Production 52
Asynchronous Hatching53
Shared Breeding Responsibilities 53
Nesting Behaviour 54
Social Behaviour in the Nest55
Social Conditioning 56
Weaning Behaviour 57
Fledging Behaviour 57
Chapter Six
Moult Cycle of the Budgerigar58
Primary Moult Cycle of Wild Budgerigars 58
Prenuptial Moult63
Exhibition Budgerigar Moult Cycles64
Chapter Seven
Nutrition of Melopsittacus undulatus66
Survival Food 70
Moult Food 72
Breeding Food 74
Chapter Eight
Nutrition for Exhibition Budgerigars 78
Theoretical Considerations of Nutrition 80
Energy 82
Energy Sources 83
Protein 84
Protein Quantity84
Protein Quality85
Fats & Essential Fatty acids 87
Minerals "macro & micro minerals"88
Iodine, iron, and other micro-minerals89
Vitamins 90
Feeding in Practice 92
Soft food recipe using soaked seed "Peter Dodd" 92
Soft food recipe using sprouted seed "Kelwyn Kakoshke" 93
Soft food recipe using dry seed "Alan Reid" 93
Alan Reid's Feeding System94
Kelwyn Kakoschke's Feeding System 96
Tailai O'Brien's Feeding System 98
Chapter Nine
Applied Anatomy of Melopsittacus undulatus 100
External Anatomy 100
Head Anatomy 100
Body Anatomy104
Internal Anatomy 106
Digestive Tract 108
Kidney System 109
Reproductive Tract 110
Feathers 112
Feather Formation 112
Feather Types112
Feather Structure 113
Feather Colour114
Feather Texture116
Feather Colour Patterns 117
Chapter Ten
Evolution of the Ideal Budgerigar 118
Chapter Eleven
Genetics of Budgerigar Colours & Varieties 126
Feather Colour & Texture130
Structural Genetics of the Varieties 132
Mutations affecting yellow pigment production 132
Mutations affecting melanin production 133
Mutations affecting melanin and psittacin production 134
Mutations affecting pigment distribution 134
Structural Colour 134
Dark factor, Grey factor, Violet factor & Slate factor Mutations135
Chapter Twelve
Inheritance behaviour of Varieties & The Standard136
Dominant Varieties & Features138
Recessive Varieties & Features 140
Inheritance Behaviour of Sex-linked Varieties 141
Traditional Breeding Roles of the Varieties142
Combinations of Colour Mutations143
Chapter Thirteen
Inheritance Behaviour of Show Features 144
Inheritance of Show Features 146
Traditional wisdom 149
Colour and Feather Condition149
Body Type or Type149
Top End "Head & Facial" Features 150
Heritability of Features 150
Chapter Fourteen
Creating Show Features 152
Role of Varieties 154
Developing Feather Features155
Developing Skeletal Features 156
Developing Breeding Ability 157
Chapter Fifteen
Feather Qualities: Creating the Illusion158
Fundamental Feather Qualities160
Feather Type "Contour Feather Qualities" 161
Structural Feather Qualities 162
Feather Texture162
Feather Colour 163
Feather Tanning 165
Three Dimensional Qualities of Contour Feathers 166
Feather Density 166
Feather Curvature167
Feather Shape & Size168
Feather Geometry 168
Feather Height168
Feather Width169
Feather Geometry & Throat Spots 169
Feather Thickness 170
Directional Feathering171
Composite Feather Features172
Chapter Sixteen
Developing a Plan for breeding the Ideal & Beyond174
Inbreeding176
Inbreeding for Bloodlines177
Crossbreeding 177
Stock birds versus Show Birds178
Inbreeding, Variation and New Features 179
Complementary Breeding 181
Hybrid Vigour 182
Incrossing182
Starting a Breeding Plan 184
Breeding Pair Selection184
A Breeding Plan 186
Inbreeding for Stock Birds or to improve a Variety 188
Inbreeding "incrossing" to improve a lesser Variety 190
Inbreeding/incrossing to Improve the Clearwing Variety 192
Complementary Breeding to produce the Ideal 194
Complementary Breeding to produce Best in Show of a particular Variety196
Breeding to produce Best in Show: Variety is unimportant197
Chapter Seventeen
Budgerigar Health & Happiness198
Aviary requirements for happiness 200
Monitoring health & happiness203
Distant Appraisal for health & happiness 203
Feather quality and happiness 204
Roosting behaviour & happiness 204
Close up investigation for health & happiness 206
Chapter Eighteen
Detecting Disease210
Distant Changes Associated with Failing Health & Disease213
Changes in Noise and Smell 213
Changes from normal Roosting Activities 214
Feather quality216
Dropping changes217
Physical abnormalities from a distance218
The physical examination 219
Eye inspection 220
Frontal feather examination 222
Cere examination 223
Close inspection of the feathers above the nostrils224
Facial feather examination226
Assessing body condition226
Vent feather examination227
Checking the abdomen, feet and legs 230
Wing examination 232
Tail & preen gland examination 234
Dead Bird Examination 236
Chapter Nineteen
Immediate & Tactical Response to Disease240
Immediate Response to Disease242
Tactical Response to Disease 244
Disease in the Flights or Weaning Cage244
Disease in the Breeding Cabinet246
Emergency Diagnosis & Treatment246
Chapter Twenty
The Management of Disease248
Natural Resistance & Disease Management250
Stress & Disease 250
Stress & Disease Management 252
Chapter Twenty One
Planning for Breeding Success256
Breeding Requirements 258
Good Health 258
Breeding Stimulation258
Breeding Condition 258
Nest and Breeding Cabinet258
Preparations for the Breeding season259
Start Time for Breeding259
Southern Hemisphere vs Northern Hemisphere Breeding Start Time 260
Southern Hemisphere Breeding Plan 260
Northern Hemisphere Breeding Plan262
Northern Hemisphere: Artificial Daylight Manipulation 264
Breeding Cabinet and Nest Preparations 266
Nutrition for Breeding 267
Breeding Condition & the Pairing Process267
Breeding Condition & Male Budgerigars 270
Breeding Condition & Female Budgerigars274
Artificial Insemination276
Chapter Twenty Two
Breeding Pair Problems278
Breeding Cock Problems280
Breeding Hen Problems284
Chapter Twenty Three
Infertility & other Egg Problems288
Infertile "clear" Eggs290
Female Fertility & Egg Quality 292
Egg Necropsy294
Dead-in-Shell Eggs 296
Chapter Twenty Four
Nestling Deaths & other Nest Problems298
Nest & Nestling Examination 300
Critical Developmental Phases302
Nestling Problems "0-3 days old" 302
Yellow Belly as a Cause of Nestling Deaths "0-3 days old"304
Yellow Belly & Nest Contamination 304
Other Causes of Nestling Death "0-3 days old"304
Nestlings Problems "5-10 days old"306
Nestling Problems "Older than 10 days" 307
Chapter Twenty Five
Weaning Problems310
Weaning Process312
The Nursery314
Forced Weaning System 314
Holistic Weaning System 316
Nursery Cycle 316
Weaning Problems 318
Feather Loss & Weaning 318
Transition to the Flights319
Chapter Twenty Six
Problems in the Flights320
Stress in the Flights322
Overlapping Stresses 324
Death in the Flights325
Young Bird Deaths 326
Preventing Problems in the Flights 328
Chapter Twenty Seven
Two Most Significant Budgerigar Diseases330
French Moult in the Flights 332
French Moult & Polyomavirus Infection333
French Moult in the Nest 334
Treatment and Control of French Moult "Polyomavirus"338
Psittacosis & Polyomavirus Infections340
The Nature of Psittacosis 342
Psittacosis & Carrier birds 344
Symptoms of Psittacosis345
Symptoms of Psittacosis in the Flights346
Symptoms of Psittacosis during the Breeding Season 347
Causes of Psittacosis 348
Diagnosis of Psittacosis 348
Psittacosis Treatment 350
Chapter Twenty Eight
The Most Devastating Diseases of Budgerigars 352
Coccidiosis354
Coccidiosis Symptom356
Coccidiosis Treatments 356
Coccidiosis Prevention Plan 358
Coccidiosis Outbreak Treatment Plan 359
Roundworm Infestation causing Death360
Roundworm Drugs "Anthelmintics"360
Roundworm Outbreak Treatment Plan361
Food Poisoning 362
Contaminated Seed 362
Bacterial Contamination of Seed364
Food Poisoining & Soaked Seed365
Food poisoning & Mycotoxins366
Chapter Twenty Nine
Diseases of Impaired Immunity368
Megabacteria370
Megabacteria Treatment 372
Streptococcus 374
Streptococcus & Breeding Failure 374
Acute Streptococcus376
Treatment & Control of Streptococcus 376
Chapter Thirty
Diseases of the Environment 378
Diseases of High Humidity380
E.coli Infection380
Triggers to E.coli Infection382
Diagnosis & Symptoms of E.coli Infection 383
Treatment & Prevention of E.coli Infections384
Staphylococcus Infection 385
Thrush "Candida" Infection386
Blocked Gizzard & Sour Crop388
Mites & Lice390
Trichomoniasis "Canker" 392
Canker Treatment & Control 394
Chapter Thirty One
Seasonal Health Programmes 396
Winter Cleansing Programme398
Flight Health Programme400
Breeding Health Programme 402
Weaning Cage Health Programme 404
Show Preparation406
Show Health Programme408
Health & Nutritional Products411

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